American Samizdat Guernica
Saturday, February 01, 2003
"If You Want To Win An Election, Just Control The Voting Machines"
"They can take over our country without firing a shot," Matulka said, "just by taking over our election systems."

. . . "I suspect they're getting ready to do this all across all the states," Matulka said in a January 30, 2003 interview. "God help us if Bush gets his touch screens all across the country," he added, "because they leave no paper trail. These corporations are taking over America, and they just about have control of our voting machines."

When I woke up the morning after the last midterm elections and heard the results, I did two things: 1) I let out an oversized groan probably audible down the hall (disclaimer: I am not a democrat, however . . . ), and 2) I knew it was fixed.

I have since had my suspicions confirmed. Every commentary written or broadcast about why the democrats lost that midterm election is about as relevant to the truth as a blank piece of toilet paper. I credit Bartcop for being one of the only people to bring this up and keep it up. Here is one of his pages called: Diebold Magic? (I believe he has put together at least one other page on this topic but I couldn't find it just now.)

Ladies and gentleman, look over the facts. Why has this story received little or no coverage? Maybe because of the successful campaign on the part of right-wing hardliners to label anything which even approaches a news-story that they don't want known as a "conspiracy theory?" (Combined with a corporate media blackout of anti-Bush facts, including and even up to correcting his quotes.) Forget labels. Look at the data. Look at the numbers. Look at the facts. If Bush & Co. are willing to massacre thousands, maybe tens of thousands, possibly hundreds of thousands of innocent Iraqi civilians on the first day of their invasion of that country in order to accomplish their greedy, murderous, megalomaniacal goals--you think they're above stealing elections? Er, scratch that--you think they're above stealing more elections?

Helen Thomas was right: this is the worst president in the history of America. Maybe this is why he doesn't care about the black vote when he comes out against affirmative action on MLK's birthday--what the fuck does he need votes for? All he has to do is spread the Diebolds, and you goddamn proles can suck eggs for your democracy.

This story is potentially the most important threat to our (past) American democracy that this country has ever encountered, and you shouldn't let a little fear of a loaded Rush-ian slur like "conspiracy theory" stop you from looking into it--and if you do look into it and think that there are more questions to be answered based on the data, based on the numbers, based on the facts, then you need to spread the word, and you need to spread it now. Gore Vidal recently referred to the term 'conspiracy theory' as bearing the present meaning of 'uncomfortable truth.' The possibility that our American election was stolen at the ballot box right under our noses, and that this situation is only going to get worse--is quite possibly the most uncomfortable truth of all. Face it. Fight it. And rip it's fucking heart out.

US is misquoting my Iraq report, says Blix

Dr Blix took issue with what he said were US Secretary of State Colin Powell's claims that the inspectors had found that Iraqi officials were hiding and moving illicit materials within and outside of Iraq to prevent their discovery. He said that the inspectors had reported no such incidents.

Similarly, he said, he had not seen convincing evidence that Iraq was sending weapons scientists to other countries to prevent them from being interviewed.

Nor had he any reason to believe, as President George Bush charged in his State of the Union speech, that Iraqi agents were posing as scientists, or that his inspection agency had been penetrated by Iraqi agents and that sensitive information might have been leaked to Baghdad.

Finally, he said, he had seen no persuasive indications of Iraqi ties to al-Qaeda. "There are other states where there appear to be stronger links," such as Afghanistan, Dr Blix said. "It's bad enough that Iraq may have weapons of mass destruction."

Russia has also denied any knowledge of links between Iraq and al-Qaeda extremists. The Russian Foreign Minister, Igor Ivanov, said on Thursday that "so far, neither Russia nor any other country has information about Iraq's ties with al-Qaeda".
Friday, January 31, 2003
How would you headline today's meeting between Bush & Blair?



Blair's tongue darts out, his eyes like saucers with excitation; meanwhile Bush swaggers around the room doing his John Wayne impression . . . he tosses a letter opener onto the carpet and Blair bounces over to it immediately, takes it into his slobbering mouth and brings it over to Bush on hands and knees.

Door opens: the servant is here with a silver platter of beer and pretzels. Bush swaggers over to the couch, sits down, turns on football and Blair curls up at his feet, preparing for sleep. What a day! Tired doggie, but good doggie.
White House Cancels Poetry Symposium
In a obvious attempt to head off this action, the White House said Wednesday it postponed a poetry symposium because of concerns that the event would be politicized. Some poets had said they wanted to protest military action against Iraq.

The symposium on the poetry of Emily Dickinson, Langston Hughes and Walt Whitman was scheduled for Feb. 12. No future date has been announced.

Note: LAME! Gotta watch out for those SPIES ya know...
Not About Nothing

The risks of doing nothing, the risks of assuming the best from Saddam Hussein, it's just not a risk worth taking.
-- Dubya, Jan. 29

Let’s get something straight once and for all.

This is not a choice between war and nothing.

Inspections are something.

Giving intelligence to the inspectors so they can do their jobs better is something.

Allowing the inspectors enough time to properly complete their work is something.

Economic and diplomatic pressure is something.

Direct support of Iraqi opposition groups is something.

Targeted military strikes to destroy known sites of weapons production is something.

No one (outside of the A.N.S.W.E.R. steering committee) is assuming the best of Saddam.

And it’s completely dishonest to characterize the majority of Americans who are against unilateral war as believing as such.

via Liberal Oasis
Thursday, January 30, 2003

Angkor: Cambodia's jewel in the jungle

The ancient city of Angkor, the center of a bizarre modern day spat between Cambodia and Thailand, is the jewel of Cambodia's cultural heritage. Even the radical Khmer Rouge regime, which ruled Cambodia in the 1970s and butchered most of its culture, regarded Angkor with a sense of awe and held it up as the peak of Cambodian civilization.

Thailand severed virtually all ties with Cambodia yesterday after bizarre rumours about a soap opera actor's alleged remarks about a ruined temple grew into a diplomatic dispute involving a burning embassy, warships and the deployment of commandos.

Bangkok's drastic action was in response to the destruction of its embassy and attacks on Thai-owned businesses in Phnom Penh on Wednesday by rioters allowed to rampage for hours while the security forces apparently did little to restrain them.

Kurt Vonnegut vs. the !&#*!@
I myself feel that our country, for whose Constitution I fought in a just war, might as well have been invaded by Martians and body snatchers. Sometimes I wish it had been. What has happened, though, is that it has been taken over by means of the sleaziest, low-comedy, Keystone Cops-style coup d’etat imaginable. And those now in charge of the federal government are upper-crust C-students who know no history or geography, plus not-so-closeted white supremacists, aka “Christians,” and plus, most frighteningly, psychopathic personalities, or “PPs.” (via)
I recently got back from the Maldives. Departing from Rome, there was a 2 hour layover in Dubai and thus the possiblity to ready Arab-based newspapers in English. Aside from the fact that, in between Rome and the Maldives, every newspaper I read gave radically different figures for how many U.S. troops were heading towards Iraq --one wrote 35,000, another 50,000, one even wrote 100,000,000. It makes one wonder where journalists get their information.
But the most interesting article I read while in Dubai claimed that Bush wanted to attack Iraq, not only for obvious reasons, but also to appropriate land to give to the Palestines for the creation of their own state and thus resolve the problem for the Israelis.

Unelected in 2000, the Washington regime of George W Bush is now totalitarian, captured by a clique whose fanaticism and ambitions of "endless war" and "full spectrum dominance" are a matter of record.

All the world knows their names: Bush, Rumsfeld, Rice, Wolfowitz, Cheney and Perle, and Powell, the false liberal. Bush's State of the Union speech last night was reminiscent of that other great moment in 1938 when Hitler called his generals together and told them: "I must have war." He then had it.

To call Blair a mere "poodle" is to allow him distance from the killing of innocent Iraqi men, women and children for which he will share responsibility.

He is the embodiment of the most dangerous appeasement humanity has known since the 1930s. The current American elite is the Third Reich of our times, although this distinction ought not to let us forget that they have merely accelerated more than half a century of unrelenting American state terrorism: from the atomic bombs dropped cynically on Japan as a signal of their new power to the dozens of countries invaded, directly or by proxy, to destroy democracy wherever it collided with American "interests", such as a voracious appetite for the world's resources, like oil.

There is much more. Read it. Please.
The Rice Project (via email)

Place 1/2 c. uncooked rice in a small plastic bag (a snack-sized bag
or sandwich bag work fine). Squeeze out excess air and seal the bag.
Wrap it in a piece of paper on which you have written:

"If your enemies are hungry, feed them." Romans 12:20.
Please send this rice to the people of Iraq; do not attack them.

Place the paper and bag of rice in an envelope (either a letter-sized
or small padded mailing envelope - both are the same cost to mail)
and address the package to:

President George Bush
White House
1600 Pennsylvania Ave. NW
Washington, DC 20500

Attach $1.06 in postage. (Three 37 cent stamps equal $1.11) Drop
this in the mail TODAY. It is important to act NOW so that President
Bush gets the letters ASAP.
Jonathon Delacour offers a nuanced, powerful account of American power as seen from the Southern Hemisphere. These days, I wish I was down there with him.
Wednesday, January 29, 2003
From Eric Alterman: Altercation quoting a paragraph from Richard K. Betts in Foreign Affairs by "Some Americans also become indignant when it is suggested that an Iraqi counterattack could be considered the fault of American initiative. This stance, they argue, is like blaming the victim. But this argument again confuses moral and material interests. If the snake strikes back when you poke it, you may blame the snake rather than yourself for being bitten. But you will still wish that you had not poked it.”
After decades of putting it off, here's my first post to American Samizdat.

Say you wanted to explain to someone--who has totally absorbed the CNN/Fox news produced unreal fantasy world where the capitalists won't even take your money to show your "anti-war" ads--how a war with Iraq could easily balloon into World War III, replete with bio and nuclear attacks. And yet, you thought, if only I could do it with Flash.

This is why I love the Internet. Unfortunately, my favorite shows tend to be cancelled. Let's all root root root for public telcos folks...

Weapons of Mass Asphyxiation
Must we trek Into the Lake of Fire?
Take some time and visit Mike Golby's disturbing finds, a compelling argument against an unnecessary war, complete with images that will smother your being.
For so many, the allure of our military toys are a validation of power, a testimony to glorious tax dollars spent in pursuit of safety, domination, and triumph.
The realities of war are horrid. A simple bulldozer becomes an Armored Combat Earth Mover. ..for burying bodies.. the 'armored burial brigade'.
We are all aware of the 'clean surgical strikes' that so dominated the previous Gulf War. What we were not aware of were the gruesome images of bodies buried alive, scooped up by the glorious Earth Movers and deposited seamlessly. leaving no trace of bodies or the smell of death.
Mike will lead you to What Bodies? written by Patrick J. Sloyan which exposes what mass media missed, or was steered away from, in 1991.
A vivid pictorial of war torn countries and inhumane acts need to be exposed. I think it is an extremely valid argument against war. A young child, seeing this, would not be expected to grow up bitter compelled to retaliate, and filled with hatred for the country that did this?
Tuesday, January 28, 2003
Search For The Missing Iraqis: Ask Daddy Bush And Clinton
We have been warned repeatedly by various sources of an impending attack on US soil.

Stories have surfaced in the media to suggest that there are 3,000 "missing Iraqis" that Federal Agents are presently hunting for.

There is absolutely no press coverage of how they got here and what their immediate political standing may or may not be.
Anarchists and the fine art of torture
Bauhaus artists such as Kandinsky, Klee and Itten, as well as the surrealist film-maker Luis Bunuel and his friend Salvador Dali, were said to be the inspiration behind a series of secret cells and torture centres built in Barcelona and elsewhere...

"The avant garde forms of the moment - surrealism and geometric abstraction - were thus used for the aim of committing psychological torture.

"The creators of such revolutionary and liberating [artistic] languages could never have imagined that they would be so intrinsically linked to repression."
Monday, January 27, 2003
For decades, the CIA has been at the cutting edge of the very latest in surveillance technology. For an example, look no further than 1967's "Acoustic Kitty" project (scroll down to #27), a stroke of genius from the Agency's Directorate of Science and Technology. In it, a surgically altered cat, wired with transmitting and control devices, was trained to become a mobile, eavesdropping platform. As Victor Marchetti recalls in John Ranelagh's book The Agency:
they slit the cat open, put batteries in him, wired him up. The tail was used as an antenna. They made a monstrosity. They tested him and tested him. They found he would walk off the job when he got hungry, so they put another wire in to override that. Finally, they’re ready. They took it out to a park bench and said “Listen to those two guys. Don’t listen to anything else – not the birds, no cat or dog – just those two guys!”

They put him out of the van, and a taxi comes and runs him over. There they were, sitting in the van with all those dials, and the cat was dead!

(via Defense Tech)
February 12 a day of Poetry Against the War
HI Poets!
Now's our chance to get your poem against the war delivered to the White House. Spread the news! All good wishes, to all beings.

-Diane di Prima
Dear Friends and Fellow Poets:
When I picked up my mail and saw the letter marked "The White House," I felt no joy. Rather I was overcome by a kind nausea as I read the card enclosed:

Laura Bush
requests the pleasure of your company
at a reception and
White House Symposium on
"Poetry and the American Voice"
on Wednesday, February 12, 2003
at one o'clock

Only the day before I had read a lengthy report on the President's proposed "Shock and Awe" attack on Iraq, calling for saturation bombing that would be like the firebombing of Dresden or Tokyo, killing countless innocent civilians.

I believe the only legitimate response to such a morally bankrupt and unconscionable idea is to reconstitute a Poets Against the War movement like the one organized to speak out against the war in Vietnam.

I am asking every poet to speak up for the conscience of our country and lend his or her name to our petition against this war, and to make February 12 a day of Poetry Against the War. We will compile an anthology of protest to be presented to the White House on that afternoon.

Please submit your name and a poem or statement of conscience to:

There is little time to organize and compile. I urge you to pass along this letter to any poets you know. Please join me in making February 12 a day when the White House can truly hear the voices of American poets.

Sam Hamill
Scorched Earth, destroying towns to save them, Dresden, Tokyo, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and now "Shock and Awe" in Baghdad. From the Syndey Morning Herald network:
The US intends to shatter Iraq "physically, emotionally and psychologically" by raining down on its people as many as 800 cruise missiles in two days.

The Pentagon battle plan aims not only to crush Iraqi troops, but also wipe out power and water supplies in the capital, Baghdad.
The piece notes that the 800 cuise missiles in question comprise "twice the number of missiles launched during the entire 40 days of the 1991 GulfWar." Note the succeeding paragraph:
"There will not be a safe place in Baghdad," a Pentagon official told America's CBS News after a briefing on the plan. "The sheer size of this has never been seen before, never been contemplated before."
And with good reason. Saddest yet is this part:
"We want them to quit, not to fight," ["Shock and Awe" progenitor Harlan] Ullman said, "so that you have this simultaneous effect - rather like the nuclear weapons at Hiroshima - not taking days or weeks but minutes."
"Rather like Hiroshima." Nice to know what Bush & Co. are aiming for. Ullman, Bush, et al. may want to consider the legal ramifications of what they're proposing (an appraisal of the moral dimension is exceedingly unlikely) and heed the U.S. lawyers warn[ing] Bush, Rumsfeld, on war crimes:
The group cited the particular need for U.S. and coalition forces to abide by humanitarian law requiring warring parties to distinguish between military and civilian areas, use only the level of force that is militarily necessary and to use weaponry that is proportionate to what is being targeted.

The letter, which had more than 100 signatories, said the rules had been broken in other recent wars.

It said air strikes on populated cities, carpet bombing and the use of fuel-air explosives were examples of inappropriate military action taken during the 1991 Gulf War, the 1999 Kosovo campaign and the 2001 Afghan conflict that led to civilian casualties and might be used again in Iraq.
Appended is Army War College Professor Col. Harry G. Summers Jr. With such an unprecedented - excepting your Hiroshima, Mr. Ullman, of course - strike threatening the residents of Baghdad, I wonder what to make of Summers' concluding paragraph.

Los Angeles TimesFebruary 8, 1991, Friday, Home Edition


"Collateral damage." That's the new buzz phrase of the Persian Gulf War. It means the unintended damage to civilians and non-military structures in the target area directly caused by military action. Although the words are new, the awful reality behind them most definitely is not.

And it didn't start with "We had to destroy the town in order to save it," the unfortunate remark of the young Army officer in the Mekong Delta during the Vietnam War that caused so much hand-wringing in the United States. As far as the American military is concerned, collateral damage is older than the Republic. "If General Washington and his council of war should be of opinion that a successful attack may be made on the (British) troops in Boston, he do it in any manner he may think expedient, notwithstanding the town and the property in it may thereby be destroyed." said the Continental Congress on Dec. 22, 1775.

And the exchange of letters on this score in September, 1864, between Union Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman and Confederate Gen. John Bell Hood during the siege of Atlanta are classic. Claiming military necessity, Sherman demanded the evacuation of all civilians from Atlanta. Hood responded that "the unprecedented measure you propose transcends, in studied and ingenious cruelty, all acts ever before brought to my attention in the dark history of war."

"Talk thus to the marines, but not to me," replied Sherman. "The use of Atlanta for warlike purposes is inconsistent with its character as a home for families. . . . You cannot qualify war in harsher terms than I will. War is cruelty, and you cannot refine it."

Ironically, in the aftermath of the terrible blood bath of World War I, Italian Gen. Giulio Douhet sought to limit the carnage of ground combat by deliberately targeting civilians instead. As the U.S. Office of Air Force History noted in its introduction to the 1983 reprint of Douhet's 1921 masterwork, "The Command of the Air," Douhet propounded that "by bombing cities and factories instead of military forces (except air forces), the enemy could be defeated through shattering the civilian will to continue to resist."

Not everyone agreed. "An air raid which involves in its accomplishment the wholesale destruction of noncombatants cannot be justified or condoned," emphasized a 1936 Army Command & General Staff School manual on military strategy. "Any nation employing such methods will be condemned by the civilized world. Air raiding among civilized nations will have to be confined to military or semi-military objectives and thus will constitute one of the important supporting units in the conduct of war."

But in World War II, that was not to be. From the German blitz of London to the Allied raids on Berlin to the firebomb raids on Tokyo to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Douhet's theories were put to the test.

The destruction of German cities by bombing was nearly total. About 305,000 German civilians were killed and 780,000 injured from Allied bombing -- 35,000 were killed in the Feb. 13-14, 1945, raid on Dresden alone.

In a March 9, 1945, air raid on Tokyo, American B-29 bombers killed 83,793 people and injured another 40,918. The raid destroyed a quarter of Tokyo's buildings and left more than a million people homeless. It was the most destructive air raid in history. Casualties exceeded the 70,000 to 80,000 killed in the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and the 35,000 killed at Nagasaki.

In the Korean War, collateral damage was also a matter of official policy. I was a sergeant with the 21st Infantry Regiment, 24th Infantry Division during the retreat from North Korea in November-December, 1950. We were ordered to conduct a "scorched earth" campaign. Knowing the Chinese Communist forces had to live off the land, as we withdrew we burned all houses, killed all livestock and destroyed all rice supplies. Civilian suffering was beyond belief. Millions of North Korean civilians fled south in subzero weather, and thousands died along the way.

When Gen. Matthew B. Ridgway assumed command of U.N. forces in Korea in late December, 1950, he canceled the "scorched earth" policy, but North Korean cities continued to be pounded from the air. On Aug. 29, 1952, for example, Far East Air Forces launched a 1,403-plane raid on the North Korean capital of Pyongyang, the largest air raid of the war.

Paradoxical as it may sound, the Vietnam War marked the beginning of the military's attempt to return to its 1936 standards and limit collateral damage. The infamous "free-fire zones," for example, were an attempt to lessen civilian casualties. Except in such zones, usually established in sparsely populated areas or in enemy-held territory, air strikes in Vietnam had to be cleared by local South Vietnamese officials.

By contrast, in World War II the entire continent of Europe was a "free-fire zone." Thousands of innocent civilians were killed and wounded by Allied bombing attacks on roads and rail networks in Belgium, France and Holland, especially just before the D-Day invasion on June 6, 1944. In the process of the war, many French cities were indeed "destroyed in order to save them."

Ramsey Clark's charges Thursday that civilian bomb damage in Iraq is far worse than is being admitted brings to mind one of the major (if not widely reported) scandals of the Vietnam War. While it was widely asserted that Hanoi had been "carpet bombed" during the Vietnam War, the truth, as I found when I traveled there in 1974, was that the bombing had been especially selective. It was not like Berlin or Tokyo after World War II, where there was nothing but rubble to the horizon. You had to look to find bomb damage in Hanoi.

In his monumental "Vietnam: A History," former war correspondent Stanley Karnow tells how such distortions occurred. "American anti-war activists visiting the city during the December, 1972, 'Christmas bombing' attacks, urged the mayor to claim a death toll of 10,000. He refused, saying his government's credibility was at stake. The official North Vietnamese figure for civilian casualties for the period was 1,318 in Hanoi." That was hardly the equivalent of the American incendiary bombing of Tokyo.

As the military briefers in both Saudi Arabia and Washington keep emphasizing, allied pilots, to avoid collateral damage, are going so far as to put themselves at risk. But even the best attempts cannot absolutely guarantee no civilian deaths or no destruction of civilian property.

Having said that, however, one thing is certain: With the tens of thousands of air sorties flown so far, and the tons of bombs dropped, if allied aircraft were indeed carpet bombing Baghdad, Baghdad would be no more.
israel elections — 1 day to voting

Israeli Democracy
Fact or Fiction?

Democracy is first and foremost a concept, a philosophical understanding concerning the rights of humans relative to the government that acts in their name. A Democratic government serves through the manifest consent of the governed. That government receives its authority through the citizens in whom the right resides. Inherent in this philosophical understanding is the acceptance of the rights of all citizens that reside in a state: each and every citizen possesses the right to consent to the legitimacy of those who govern, and each and every citizen must receive equal treatment before the law.

For a state to claim a Democratic form of government, it must have an established geographic area accepted by other nations as legitimate and defined. The need for established borders is both obvious and necessary with necessity arising out of the obvious. Without borders, there can be no absolute determination of citizenry, and, therefore, no way to fulfill the establishment of the rights noted above. What has this to do with the Democratic state of Israel? Everything.

The last days of democracy

This may be the last hurrah of 54 years of democracy in Israel. The elections next week are not about war and peace or even about the economy, social policy or clean government. They are about the very existence of the democratic regime in Israel. For years, many people claimed that the fact that we were able to maintain a democratic regime while being engaged in a conflict with the Arab world bordered on a miracle. The miracle business is in a deep recession just now.

Israel, like all other countries, is poised on a continuum between democracy and dictatorship. There is no regime that is 100 percent compatible with the ideal of liberal democracy. It's all a matter of dosage. A large number of Israel's citizens were raised and educated in authoritarian regimes. They have a most pitiful conception of individual rights, the rule of law, freedom of scientific creativity and freedom of expression. Until a few years ago, Israeli society was moving in the direction of democracy. In the last two years, we have changed direction. After the elections we may cross the line on the road to despotism.

Half a democracy
By Gideon Levy

What sort of democracy is this, if exactly half the state's residents don't benefit from it? Indeed, can the term "democratic" be applied to a state in which many of the residents live under a military regime or are deprived of civil rights? Can there be democracy without equality, with a lengthy occupation and with foreign workers who have no rights? And what about the racism?

For Whom to Vote?
by Uri Avnery

What a strange, eerie silence!

Fifteen times have Israelis voted for the Knesset, and every time has the campaign been stormy, raucous, even violent. No one could escape it, even if he or she wanted to. Every wall called out: vote for me!

This time the voting public is in a state of deep depression. A kind of silent despair: the situation is awful, but there is nothing we can do about it. There is no solution. There is no hope. So what can be done? Nothing. One has to be resigned.
Sunday, January 26, 2003
The New Resistance

by John Kaminski

The new revolution is you and me, and is definitely not being reported in the newspapers, who keep telling us Bush's popularity is at an all-time high and give us not a whisper that the evil men in the White House who are allowed to keep their lucrative secrets by judges who rule against the people's right to know are the very same men who appointed those very same judges, a rancid closed circle of horror that lets the guilty rich go free and jails poor innocents without trial, without phone call, without hope.
The Perpetual War Portfolio
The Perpetual War Portfolio is an evenly weighted basket of five stocks poised to succeed in the age of perpetual war. The stocks were selected on the basis of popular product lines, strong political connections and lobbying efforts, and paid-for access to key Congressional decision-makers.
Frans Masereel, by Jacques Mesnil (1934, Berkeley Heights, N.J.: Oriole Press; Bookman and Hadriano types; printed in black and red; 100 copies on Bay Path paper). From Types of the Oriole Press at Joseph Ishill and the Authors and Artists of the Oriole Press. "...Ishill published more than 200 books and pamphlets, all of them typeset and printed by hand. In spite of toiling in relative obscurity he has been lauded both by radicals, who recognize him for his efforts in publishing radical materials, and by fine press enthusiasts, who consider him to be one of the finest American printers and typographers of the twentieth century."

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